Anoma wasn’t created in a vacuum. Built on cutting-edge distributed ledger and cryptographic research, Anoma was designed by leading developers in the blockchain space as a response to the lack of financial privacy and sovereignty available to people today. To gain an in-depth understanding of Anoma, we recommend reading the papers below.

Anoma papers

Whether you’re looking to understand in detail how Anoma works, or explore the motivations behind its creation, the Anoma papers offer a comprehensive guide to the project. They serve as a useful reference for users, validators, stakers, and developers alike.


The whitepaper provides a comprehensive description of how the Anoma protocol works, why the protocol is needed, how the protocol is instantiated, and what features the protocol provides to users and developers.


Vision Paper

The Anoma vision paper investigates the nature of coordination, analyzes the mechanisms which facilitate it, and breaks down why and how they function. Money, the numerical abstraction of value, is a mechanism which enables trade between wide networks of economic agents, but the unidimensional reduction in conjugation with the game theoretic dynamics of multiplayer zero-sum competition results in systemic divergence from the preferences of the participants and eventually existential risks to humanity. The vision paper specifies the requirements of a coordination mechanism that doesn’t suffer from this abstractive deficit and introduces the Anoma protocol, which deploys contemporary distributed ledger technology and cryptographic primitives to create a large-scale coordination mechanism which does not require a unidimensional unit of account and allows individuals to articulate arbitrarily detailed preferences.

Vision Paper

Research papers

Find below research papers authored or co-authored by our team members.

Bandersnatch: a fast elliptic curve built over the BLS12-381 scalar field

In this short paper, Masson, Sanso and Zhang introduce Bandersnatch, a new elliptic curve built over the BLS12-381 scalar field. BLS12-381 is a pairing-friendly curve created by Sean Bowe in 2017, and universally used for digital signatures and zero-knowledge proofs by many projects in the blockchain universe, one being Anoma. The Jubjub curve introduced by the ZCash team is not pairing friendly, and has a main drawback of a slow scalar multiplication algorithm. In comparison, the Bandersnatch curve has a small discriminant, a lower multiplication cost, and is also defined over the BLS12-381 scalar field. The elliptic curve was obtained using the complex multiplication method, and is efficient thanks to the GLV method. This paper presents a method to generate curves like Bandersnatch with specific properties (the ability to compute the GLV method and cryptographic security), the curve in different models (in Weierstrass, Montgomery and twisted Edwards coordinates) and compares the scalar multiplication algorithm over the Bandersnatch and Jubjub curves from a practical perspective.

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